A list of the contents of this article:
- 1 、Ask the question about the failure of the manipulator.
- 2 、What are the manipulators
- 3 、What are the types of industrial robots and what are the iconic industrial robot products?
- 4 、What types of robots can ball screws be used on?
- 5 、What are the structures of the handling robot?
- 6 、Ask for the information of Japanese Yaskawa robot (MOTOMAN)
Ask the question about the failure of the manipulator.
May be the hand controller is broken, the electronic components chip inside may be false welding, false welding, need to be sent back to the factory for inspection and repair.
What are the manipulators
The types of manipulators can be divided into hydraulic, pneumatic, electric and mechanical manipulators according to the driving mode, and can be divided into special manipulators and general manipulators according to the scope of application. according to the motion trajectory control mode can be divided into point control and continuous trajectory control manipulator and so on. Manipulators are usually used as additional devices for machine tools or other machines, such as loading, unloading and transferring workpieces on automatic machine tools or automatic production lines, changing tools in machining centers, etc., generally there is no independent control device.
What are the types of industrial robots and what are the iconic industrial robot products?
According to the introduction of Baidu encyclopedia, industrial robot is a multi-joint manipulator or multi-degree-of-freedom robot facing the industrial field, a machine device that performs work automatically, and a machine that relies on its own power and control ability to achieve various functions. It can be directed by humans or run according to pre-programmed programs, and modern industrial robots can also act according to the principles laid down by artificial intelligence technology.
Typical applications of industrial robots include welding, painting, assembly, acquisition and placement (such as packaging, palletizing and SMT), product testing and testing, etc., with high efficiency, durability, efficiency and accuracy.
Industrial robot is the key supporting equipment of advanced manufacturing industry. If China’s manufacturing industry wants to realize intelligent manufacturing, it not only needs to develop and apply a variety of industrial robots, but also to speed up the development of six iconic industrial robots represented by fully independent programming intelligent industrial robots and man-machine cooperative robots. promote industrial robots to the middle and high end.
1. Fully autonomous programming intelligent industrial robot
According to the relevant provisions of the Robot Industry Development Plan, the fully autonomous programming industrial robot that meets the development of intelligent manufacturing and advanced manufacturing industry should have a degree of freedom above 6 and adapt to a workpiece size range above 1m*1m*0.3m. This kind of industrial robot needs to have an intelligent process expert system to obtain information automatically and generate an operation program (the whole process is not taught, and the automatic programming time is less than 1 second), in order to meet the complex requirements of spraying, polishing, grinding and so on.
two。 Arc welding robot
Arc welding robot is an industrial robot used for automatic arc welding, its composition principle is basically the same as that of spot welding robot, and it is mainly used in the welding production of all kinds of automobile parts. Arc welding robot is usually composed of robot body, control system, teaching device, welding power source, welding torch, welding fixture, safety protection facilities and so on.
In the process of upgrading to the middle and high end, the arc welding robot should widely apply a variety of key technologies, such as weld trajectory arc tracking, high voltage contact sensing, weld groove width arc tracking and so on, and focus on the research and development of 6-degree-of-freedom multi-joint robot to achieve the rated load of medium and heavy plate arc welding robot ≥ 10kg, thin plate arc welding robot rated load 6kg and so on.
3. Man-machine cooperative robot
Man-machine cooperative robot is a robot that interacts closely with human beings in the common workspace, and it is the focus of development in the field of industrial robots. In the past, most industrial robots worked automatically or under limited guidance, without considering close interaction with human beings. With Industrial 4.0 getting closer and closer, it is more and more necessary and urgent for people and machines to work together and give full play to their respective expertise.
The man-machine cooperative robot facing the future intelligent building trend should be a multi-joint robot with more than 6 degrees of freedom, the dead weight load ratio is less than 4, the repeated positioning accuracy is ±0.05mm, the force control accuracy is 5N, the collision safety monitoring response time is 0.3s, and the whole arm safety sensing distance 1cm and protection grade IP54 are selected. It should be suitable for industries with high requirements of flexibility, flexibility and accuracy (such as electronics, medicine, precision instruments, etc.), and meet the operational needs of more industrial production.
4. Overload AGV
AGV is short for unmanned moving vehicle (Automated Guided vehicle). By equipped with automatic guidance device, AGV can drive along the prescribed path, complete material handling and safety protection, replace traditional handling equipment such as forklifts and trailers, and realize fewer or even unmanned operations.
AGV robot has extremely high work efficiency, which not only greatly reduces labor costs, but also greatly reduces accidents at work, so it is extremely hot in the industrial field, and it is also an indispensable handling equipment in the field of intelligent manufacturing in the future.
In the process of promoting industrial robots to the middle and high end, heavy-duty robots are a major iconic product. According to the Robot Development Plan, the indicators for reloading AGV are as follows-
Driving mode: all-wheel drive; maximum load capacity 4000kg; maximum speed: straight line 20m; turning radius: 2m; auxiliary magnetic navigation accuracy: ±10mm; anti-collision device: laser anti-collision device; lifting device: car body self-lifting; lifting stroke: maximum 100mm.
5. Dual-arm robot
As the modern manufacturing industry continues to move towards intelligent manufacturing, the limitations of single-arm robots become more and more obvious, and there are more and more tasks that can not be completed and can not adapt to the work scene. In this case, the dual-arm robot came into being. The double-arm double-power device imitates the cooperation principle of the two arms of the human body and has the function of operating the two arms separately. The two-arm or even multi-arm cooperative robot perfectly adapts to and effectively promotes intelligent manufacturing, and realizes the perfect cooperation, coexistence and sharing between machines and human beings.
According to the Robot Industry Development Plan, the core indicators of dual-arm robots include the following aspects–
Each single arm has more than 6 degrees of freedom, joint rotation speed ≥ ±180 °/ s, average power consumption 500W, with dual-arm collision detection path planning function, integrated binocular vision positioning error 1mm 2 fingers / 3 fingers flexible claw stroke ≥ 50mm, grasping force ≥ 30N, repetitive positioning accuracy ±0.05mm, suitable for 3C electronics and other industries parts assembly production line.
6. Vacuum (clean) robot
Vacuum (clean) robot is a kind of robot that works in vacuum environment, which is mainly used in semiconductor industry to realize the transmission of wafers in vacuum chamber. The key technologies of research and development of vacuum robot include transmission lubrication in vacuum environment, direct drive control, dynamic deviation detection and correction, collision detection and protection and so on.
Vacuum manipulator has strong versatility, large consumption, limited and difficult to import, which is the key component that restricts the research and development progress and product competitiveness of semiconductor equipment. At present, it has become a “sticking neck” problem that seriously restricts the manufacture of semiconductor equipment in our country.
According to the relevant policy standards, vacuum robots in line with the reality of intelligent manufacturing in China should meet the core indicators such as vacuum maximum load 15kg, clean maximum load 210kg, repetitive positioning accuracy ±0.050.1mm and so on.
What types of robots can ball screws be used on?
Many, many, for example.
, single arm
Cartesian coordinate manipulator, mainly used in
It’s used in mechanical production.
And medical equipment and so on. It can be used basically with transmission.
What are the structures of the handling robot?
The handling robot is composed of three parts: executive mechanism, driving mechanism and control mechanism.
1. Executive agency
The part of the hand that is in direct contact with the workpiece is generally transformational or translational (mostly transformational because of its simple structure). The hands are mostly two fingers (there are also multiple fingers); according to the need, they can be divided into external grasping type and internal grasping type; negative pressure or vacuum air sucker (mainly used for absorbable, smooth surface parts or thin plate parts) and electromagnetic sucker can also be used.
There are many forms of force transmission mechanism, which are commonly used: chute lever type, connecting rod lever type, inclined wedge lever type, gear rack type, screw nut type, spring type and gravity type. The hand of this design chooses the clamping class to transform the structure of the hand. The execution of the hand depends on the telescopic movement of the rod to realize its opening and closing movement. the power source of the rod comes from the hydraulic cylinder of the follow-up driving source. the hydraulic cylinder uses a telescopic hydraulic cylinder, which can save horizontal working space.
The wrist is a part that connects the hand and the arm, and can be used to adjust the orientation of the grasped object, so as to expand the action range of the manipulator and make the manipulator more dexterous and adaptable. The wrist has independent degrees of freedom. There are rotary motion, up and down swing, left and right swing. In general, the wrist is equipped with rotary motion and adding a swing up and down to meet the work requirements. For some special manipulators with relatively simple movements, in order to simplify the structure, they can directly use the arm motion to drive the hand to move the workpiece without setting up the wrist.
At present, the most widely used rotary motion mechanism of the wrist is the rotary hydraulic cylinder, which has compact structure, dexterity but small rotation angle (generally less than 270), and requires strict sealing, otherwise it is difficult to ensure stable output torque. Therefore, in the case of large rotation angle, rack transmission or sprocket and gear train structure are adopted. The wrist of the designed handling robot is to realize the rotational motion of the hand 180.
The wrist is driven directly, because the wrist is installed at the end of the arm, so it must be designed to be very compact so that the drive source can be installed on the wrist. The opening and closing of the robot hand is driven by a double-acting single-plunger hydraulic cylinder, while the rotary motion of the wrist is realized by a rotary hydraulic cylinder. The shell of the clamping piston cylinder is connected with the moving plate of the swinging cylinder; when oil is fed into different oil cavities in the rotary hydraulic cylinder, the rotation of the wrist in different directions can be realized.
The arm part is an important holding part of the manipulator. Its function is to support the wrists and hands (including work or fixtures) and drive them to do spatial movements.
The purpose of arm movement: to send the hand to any point within the range of motion in space. If you change the posture (orientation) of the hand, it is achieved with the degree of freedom of the wrist. Therefore, generally speaking, the arm has three degrees of freedom to meet the basic requirements, that is, the extension, left and right rotation, lifting (or pitching) movement of the arm.
The various movements of the arm are usually realized by driving mechanisms (such as hydraulic cylinders or cylinders) and various transmission mechanisms. from the analysis of the force on the arm, it is subject to the static and dynamic loads of the wrist, hands and workpieces. and its own movement is more, the force is complex. Therefore, its structure, working scope, flexibility, grasping weight and positioning accuracy directly affect the working performance of the manipulator. This design realizes the up and down movement of the arm, the forward and backward expansion, and the slewing movement of the arm. Arm motion parameters: telescopic stroke: 1200mm; telescopic speed: 83mm; lifting stroke: 300mm; lifting speed: 67mm; rotation range: 180mm. The expansion of the robot arm changes the working length of the arm. In the cylindrical coordinate structure, the maximum working length of the arm determines the diameter of the cylindrical surface that can be reached at the end of the arm. The telescopic arm mechanism can be driven directly by hydraulic cylinder.
4) Machine base
The frame is the basic part of the fuselage robot and plays a supporting role. For the fixed robot, it is directly connected to the ground, and for the mobile robot, it is installed on the mobile structure. The fuselage is composed of arm movement (lifting, translation, rotation and pitching) mechanism and related guiding devices, supporting parts, etc. Moreover, the driving devices or transmission parts of the lifting, turning or pitching movements of the arm are installed on the fuselage. The more the movement of the arm, the more complex the structure and force of the fuselage. The fuselage of the lifting robot of this graduation design is selected to lift back to transform the fuselage structure; the configuration type of the arm and fuselage adopts the column type single arm configuration, and its driving source comes from the rotary hydraulic cylinder.
2. Driving mechanism
The driving mechanism is an important part of the handling robot. According to the different power sources, the driving mechanism of industrial manipulator can be divided into four types: hydraulic, pneumatic, electric and mechanical drive.
(1) hydraulic transmission. With a large power volume ratio, often used in large load occasions; pressure, flow are easy to control, stepless speed regulation; responsive, can achieve continuous trajectory control, convenient maintenance; but the liquid is sensitive to temperature changes, oil leakage is easy to catch fire; small and medium-sized special manipulators or robots are used, heavy manipulators are mostly hydraulically driven; the cost of hydraulic components is high, and the oil circuit is more complex.
(2) pneumatic transmission. The pneumatic system is simple, low cost, suitable for situations with fast beat, small load and low precision, and is often used for point control, grasping, elastic holding and vacuum adsorption, which can be high-speed, but the impact is serious, and accurate positioning is difficult; maintenance is simple, can be used in high temperature, dust and other harsh environment, leakage is not affected; small and medium-sized special manipulators or robots are used.
(3) Electric power. There are asynchronous motor, DC motor, stepper or servo motor and other electric drive methods. The motor is easy to use, and with the improvement of material performance, the performance of the motor is also gradually improved. at present, it is mainly suitable for medium load, especially for industrial robots and all kinds of micro-robots with complex movements and strict trajectories.
Brake and its function: brake is a device that releases the energy of mechanical motion into heat energy, so as to reduce or stop the mechanical speed of movement. it can be roughly divided into two types: mechanical brake and electric brake. In a robot mechanism, you learn to use brakes as follows:
Instant stop and need to take safety measures under special circumstances of ①
When there is a power outage in the ②, it prevents the movement part from slipping and damaging other devices.
There are several kinds of mechanical brakes, such as spiral automatic loading brake, disc brake, brake shoe brake and electromagnetic brake. One of the most typical is the electromagnetic brake.
The servo motor is often used in the driving system of the robot. The characteristic of the servo motor determines that the electromagnetic brake is an indispensable part. In principle, this kind of brake is a disc brake braking by spring force, only when the excitation current passes through the coil, the brake opens, then the brake does not play a braking role, and when the power supply disconnects the coil without excitation current, the normally closed mode of braking under the action of spring force. Therefore, this kind of brake is called unexcited electromagnetic brake. And because this kind of brake is often used in safety braking occasions, it is also called safety brake.
A motor is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, on the contrary, it also has the power generation function of converting rotating mechanical energy into electrical energy. In other words, the servo motor is a kind of energy conversion device, which can convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, and can also achieve the purpose of braking through its reverse process. However, for different types of motors such as DC motor, synchronous motor and induction motor, appropriate braking circuits must be adopted respectively.
3. Control mechanism
The core of constructing robot platform is to establish the control system of robot. First of all, we need to choose and hardware platform, the control system hardware platform has a great impact on the openness, implementation and development workload of the system. The commonly used control system hardware platform should meet the following requirements: the hardware system is based on the standard bus mechanism and has scalability; the hardware structure has the necessary real-time computing capability; and the hardware system is modularized. easy to add or change a variety of interfaces, sensors and special computers; low cost. Up to now, the hardware platform of general robot control system can be roughly divided into two categories: the system based on VME bus (Versamodel Eurocard’s first generation 32-bit industrial open standard bus introduced by Motorola in 1981) and the system based on PC bus. In recent years, with the rapid development of PC performance, the reliability has been greatly improved, but the price has been greatly reduced. The control system with PC as the core has been widely accepted by the robot control field.
Ask for the information of Japanese Yaskawa robot (MOTOMAN)
Japan’s Yaskawa Electric Co., Ltd. has successfully developed industrial robots “motoman-da20” and “motoman-ia20” that can perform tasks previously done by humans. The two robots will be available on December 1, 2005. According to reports, da20 is a “two-arm” robot equipped with two 6-axis drive arm robots. The ia20 is an arm-shaped robot that reproduces the movement of the human elbow through a 7-axis drive. Two robots will be used to complete assembly and handling operations instead of humans. In terms of price, da20 is 9.8 million yen and ia20 is 5.8 million yen (including tax, with controller and programming console).
Da20 is equipped with two 6-axis drive arm robots on a structure that mimics the human upper body. The upper body structure itself also has joints that rotate around the vertical axis. The size is roughly the same as that of an adult male. Therefore, it can be directly set in the place where human work was carried out before. Because of the movement and structure close to the human arms, this kind of robot can move the workpiece stably. And can also be engaged in fastening nuts and parts of the assembly and insertion and other operations. In addition, compared with the coordinated control of two-arm robot, the setting area of this kind of robot is smaller. The weight-bearing capacity of one arm is 20 kg, and both arms can carry up to 40 kg of workpiece.
The ia20 is an arm-type robot with a 7-axis drive, so it is closer to human action. Generally speaking, it is generally believed that human arms have joints with 7-8 axes. The previous 6-axis robot, in terms of humans, reproduced the three joints of the arm and the three joints of the wrist. On the other hand, ia20 further increases the joint of the elbow. In this way, it is possible to fold or extend the arm through the elbow. Due to movement constraints, the chest of a 6-axis robot becomes a “dead zone”, while a 7-axis robot can also use the chest as an action area. In addition, the action of bypassing the obstacles near the fuselage can also be carried out.
Both da20 and ia20 are equipped with newly developed servo motors at the joints. The motor adopts the design of reducer and brake. (source: China Industrial equipment Network)
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